Appiah seems to expand on the notion of bringing the reader to the author in order to engage with the actual source text and culture. Appiah explains that “literal translation”, or “gloss”, lacks the ability to bring forth the concepts or features that originally made the text important. Thus, it inevitably becomes the responsibility of the translator to add, interpret, and annotate the text so that the reader in the target culture can thoroughly understand and make sense of the text. Is Appaih thus claiming that in order for there to exist an equal effect, or equal value/meaning, in both the source and target culture footnotes/annotations are essential? How does this influence the universality of a text? Would this mean we or the translator must automatically assume that the way in which one reader interprets the meaning of a text is the same as another reader?